Data from African countries regarding diagnosis, prognosis, management, and outcome of patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) are limited. The aim of the present study is to characterize clinical presentation, predisposing factors, neuroimaging findings, and outcomes of the disease in the Tunisian population.
This is a prospective study including patients referred to the Neurology Department of the Military Hospital of Tunis between January 2009 and December 2012. The diagnosis of CVT was confirmed in all patients using magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography. The demographic, clinical, radiological, and outcome data were recorded and analyzed. Median follow-up was 16 months (range 6 months to 4 years). Primary outcome was death or dependency as assessed by modified Rankin score more than 2 at the end of follow-up.
This study included 41 patients with CVT. Mean age was 41.24 years, predominantly women (68%). The mode of onset was acute in 10 patients (24%), subacute in 26 (64%), and chronic in 5 (12%). The most common presenting features were headache, observed in 83% of the patients, followed by seizures, focal motor deficits, papilledema, and mental status changes. Lateral (56%) and superior longitudinal (51%) sinuses were the most commonly involved. Multiple sinuses were involved in 46% of cases. Nineteen patients (46%) had a d-dimer level more than 500 ng/mL. Major causes of CVT were thrombophilia (56%), either genetic or acquired, obstetric and gynecological (50%), and septic (34%). Outcome was favorable in 83% of patients. At the end of follow-up, 32 patients (78%) had complete recovery (modified Rankin Scale [mRs] score 0-1), 2 (5%) had partial recovery (mRs score 2), and 4 (10%) were dependent (mRs score 3-5). One patient (2.5%) had a recurrent sinus thrombosis.
Our Tunisian population presented distinct risk factors profile with high frequency of thrombophilia, infections, and postpartum state. Oral contraceptive use is not a major risk factor in our population. The overall prognosis was good.
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Published online: January 24, 2014
Accepted: October 24, 2013
Received in revised form: September 9, 2013
Received: July 28, 2013
All authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. They received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
© 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.