Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a well-recognized complication of hypertensive encephalopathy. Recently, pre-eclampsia, connective tissue disorders, and immunosuppressive drugs have been reported to be the etiologies of this rare syndrome.
We evaluated 9 cases of PRES whose diagnosis were confirmed based on clinical and radiologic evidence between July 2011 and December 2013 in a tertiary center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran.
Immunosuppressive drugs, especially cyclosporine, and hypertension were the main precipitating factors. In this study, seizure was the most common clinical presentation (100%), whereas other common clinical presentations were confusion (78%), visual loss (67%), and headaches (67%). With conservative management and elimination of predisposing factor, the patients improved gradually except for 2 cases who experienced prolonged recovery period because of delayed diagnosis.
With timely diagnosis, PRES generally has a good prognosis with complete recovery. However, in missed conditions, it could be associated with catastrophic burden especially in organ transplantation after a prolonged time spending to find matched donors or in chronic immunosuppressive conditions. Thereupon, physicians should be aware of clinical and radiologic manifestations of this preventable but potentially disabling syndrome.
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Published online: June 13, 2015
Accepted: February 10, 2015
Received in revised form: February 3, 2015
Received: January 6, 2015
Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
All authors read the article with a critical view and were involved in collecting of data and designing and writing of the article.
© 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.