Research Article| Volume 26, ISSUE 2, P280-285, February 2017

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Comparison of Characteristics of Stroke-Associated Pneumonia in Stroke Care Units in Indonesia and Japan


      Pneumonia is one of the most common medical complications after stroke. Incidence and risk factor analyses of stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) in stroke care units (SCUs) are limited. SAP incidence comparisons across countries can identify the most effective treatment to reduce this incidence.


      This was a retrospective study including consecutive patients with acute stroke in SCUs in 2 hospitals: 105 patients (mean age 78.2 ± 5.8) from the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center (NCVC) in Osaka, Japan (from July to August 2015), and 105 patients (mean age 60 ± 5.8) from the National Brain Centre (NBC) Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia (from May to September 2015). We used descriptive statistics and a logistic regression model for statistical analysis.


      The incidence of SAP in the SCU NBC Hospital was higher than that in the SCU NCVC (22.9% versus 12.4%, P = .0466). In the SCU NBC Hospital, dysphagia (odds ratio [OR] 15.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77-130.73) and severe neurological deficits on admission (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.60-17.60) were significantly associated with SAP, whereas in the SCU NCVC, dysphagia (OR 14.42, 95% CI 2.34-88.98) and diabetes mellitus (OR 7.16, 95% CI 1.27-40.18) were the risk factors. When the patients of both hospitals were analyzed together, severe neurological deficits on admission (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.31-8.64) and dysphagia (OR 12.62, 95% CI 3.75-42.45) were significant determinants for developing SAP.


      The incidence of SAP was higher in the Indonesian hospital than in the Japanese one. Our findings support other epidemiological data of a high incidence of SAP with severe neurological deficits on admission and dysphagia in an SCU setting.

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