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Funding: This study was supported by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (Grant number: 06278 ).
The opinions, results, and conclusions are those of the authors and no endorsement by the Ministry is intended or should be inferred.
Role of the funding source: The funding source had no role in the study design, data collection, analysis, interpretation, writing, or the decision to publish. The corresponding author had full access to all of the data and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication.
Competing interests: J.D.C., P.C., and S.H. have received fees for providing expert testimony in chiropractic malpractice court proceedings. J.D.C., E.B., and P.C. have received a research grant from the Canadian Chiropractic Protective Association to study the association between chiropractic care and the risk of cauda equina syndrome. J.D.C. has received a research grant from the National Chiropractic Insurance Company and the Canadian Chiropractic Protective Association to partially fund the Decade of the Bone and Joint 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders. S.H. sits on the Clinical Advisory Board of Palladian Health. J.D.C. and E.B. have received research grants from the Danish Chiropractic Research Foundation and Postgraduate Education for projects unrelated to the current study. S.B. and S.H.-J. have no competing interests to declare.
Authors' contributions: J.D.C. was the principal investigator of the study. All authors contributed to the design and interpretation of the findings. E.B. was primarily responsible for the statistical analysis. J.D.C. and E.B. wrote the paper. All authors contributed to and approved the final manuscript.