Dupilumab, a dual inhibitor of IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine signaling, is indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis, which leads to the control of atopic dermatitis. The cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 are related to vascular inflammation, which is mediated by vascular endothelial cells. We report the case of a 20-year-old man with atopic dermatitis treated with dupilumab for half a year, who presented with sudden onset of dizziness, nausea, and slight cerebellar ataxia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute infarction in the bicerebellar hemispheres. No risk factors known to be associated with ischemic stroke in young adults were detected. We suspected this ischemic stroke might be related to dupilumab. The administration of dupilumab was discontinued, and he had no recurrence subsequently. IL-4 and IL-13, anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted from T helper 2 cells, suppress proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, dupilumab, a dual inhibitor of IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine signaling, leads to the promotion of coagulation and thrombosis. We speculate that the activation of proinflammatory cytokines in vascular endothelial cells by the inhibition of IL-4 and IL-13 signaling by dupilumab led to ischemic stroke even at a young age.
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Published online: April 04, 2020
Accepted: February 13, 2020
Received in revised form: February 10, 2020
Received: December 2, 2019
Financial Disclosure: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
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