Advertisement

Acute Cerebrovascular Disorders and Vasculopathies Associated with Significant Mortality in SARS-CoV-2 Patients Admitted to The Intensive Care Unit in The New York Epicenter

  • Fawaz Al-Mufti
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Neurosurgery, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Radiology, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Christian Becker
    Affiliations
    Department of Internal Medicine –Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Haris Kamal
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Haris Kamal, MD, Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Neuroendovascular surgery, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College,100 Woods Road, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA.
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurosurgery, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Hussein Alshammari
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Vincent Dodson
    Affiliations
    Department of Surgery, Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Rolla Nuoman
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Katarina Dakay
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurosurgery, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jared Cooper
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurosurgery, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Edwin Gulko
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Neurosurgery, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Radiology, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Internal Medicine –Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Surgery, Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ USA

    Department of Neurosurgery, Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY 10595 USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Gurmeen Kaur
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Neurosurgery, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Radiology, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Internal Medicine –Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Surgery, Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ USA

    Department of Neurosurgery, Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY 10595 USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Ramandeep Sahni
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Corey Scurlock
    Affiliations
    Department of Internal Medicine –Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Stephan A. Mayer
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Neurosurgery, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Chirag D. Gandhi
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Neurosurgery, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA

    Department of Radiology, Westchester Medical Center at New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY USA
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      The current Coronavirus pandemic due to the novel SARS-Cov-2 virus has proven to have systemic and multi-organ involvement with high acuity neurological conditions including acute ischemic strokes. We present a case series of consecutive COVID-19 patients with cerebrovascular disease treated at our institution including 3 cases of cerebral artery dissection including subarachnoid hemorrhage. Knowledge of the varied presentations including dissections will help treating clinicians at the bedside monitor and manage these complications preemptively.

      Key Words

      Introduction

      The current Coronavirus pandemic due to the novel SARS-Cov-2 virus has proven to have systemic and multi-organ involvement alongside typical respiratory symptoms.
      • Galeotti C.
      • Bayry J
      Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases following COVID-19.
      Among neurological manifestations, multiple reports reflect emerging evidence for neurotropism of the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, including frequent complaints of anosmia, seizures and less common reports of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, acute necrotizing encephalitis etc.
      • Montalvan V
      • Lee J
      • Bueso T
      • De Toledo J
      • Rivas K
      Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections: a systematic review.
      A hypercoagulable state has also been reported in many patients, characterized by thrombocytopenia, elevated fibrinogen and d-dimer levels leading to unusual cases of multifocal pulmonary thrombosis as well as acute ischemic strokes.
      • Magro C
      • Mulvey JJ
      • Berlin D
      • et al.
      Complement associated microvascular injury and thrombosis in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 infection: a report of five cases.
      • Panigada M
      • Bottino N
      • Tagliabue P
      • et al.
      Hypercoagulability of COVID-19 patients in intensive care unit: a report of thromboelastography findings and other parameters of hemostasis.
      • Ranucci M
      • Ballotta A
      • Di Dedda U
      • et al.
      The procoagulant pattern of patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome.
      • Oxley TJ
      • Mocco J
      • Majidi S
      • et al.
      Large-vessel stroke as a presenting feature of COVID-19 in the young.
      SARS-CoV-2 virus has also been implicated in autoimmune and auto-inflammatory disease leading to a vasculopathy and/or vasculitides
      • Galeotti C.
      • Bayry J
      Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases following COVID-19.
      among mounting reports of spontaneous coronary artery and cerebral artery dissection in COVID-19 patients without any history of antecedent trauma or connective tissue disorder.
      • Dakay K
      • Kaur G
      • Gulko E
      • Santarelli J
      • Bowers C
      • Mayer SA
      • Gandhi CD
      • Al-Mufti F
      Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and dissection in the setting of COVID-19 infection.
      • Courand PY H.B.
      • Bonnet M.
      • Lantelme P.
      Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a patient with COVID-19.

      Remo Albiero, Giuseppe Seresini, Atherosclerotic spontaneous coronary artery dissection (A-SCAD) in a patient with COVID-19: case report and possible mechanisms, European Heart J Case Rep, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytaa133

      • Fukuhara S.
      • Rosati C.M.
      • El-Dalati S
      Acute Type A aortic dissection during COVID-19 Outbreak.
      • Patel P
      • Khandelwal P
      • Gupta G
      • Singla A
      “COVID-19 and cervical artery dissection- a causative association?.
      Here, we describe a subset of consecutive COVID-19 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD) including 3 unique cases of spontaneous cerebral artery dissection. As our knowledge of the different afflictions of this virus grows, it is important for clinicians to be aware of the far reaching clinical consequences they may be faced with while providing optimal care to our patients. To our knowledge, this is the largest number of reported cases of cerebral artery dissection among COVID-19 patients from a single center.

      Methods

      We report a prospectively followed cohort of all hospitalized cases with confirmed COVID-19 infection (SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive) and CVD (ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke) between March 26th and April 12th, 2020 treated at our comprehensive stroke center located in the New York City Metropolitan area. Diagnosis of CVD was confirmed on neuroimaging with CT, CTA and/or MRI of the brain. Baseline demographics, clinical, laboratory, diagnostic and imaging findings were extracted by a board-certified or board-eligible neurologist. Stroke etiology, according to the TOAST criteria for ischemic stroke, was determined based on available workup.

      Results/case series

      We cared for approximately 600 COVID-19 patients between March 26th and April 12th, 2020, of whom 127 were admitted to the ICU. We admitted a total of 48 patients with acute ischemic stroke during the study period, 8 of whom had concomitant COVID-19 and were managed in the COVID Intensive care unit.

      Ischemic stroke patients

      Of the eight COVID-19 positive patients, seven (87%) patients presented with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) (Table 1,2). Five patients were adjudicated to have embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) as defined by the Cryptogenic Stroke/ESUS International Working Group consensus 2014 statement outlining the diagnostic guidelines to ischemic strokes without clear etiology. With regards to infarct location, all of the ESUS strokes had bilateral middle cerebral artery involvement and either anterior or posterior cerebral artery territory infarctions. One of the ESUS patients also developed cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) involving the right transverse sinus and jugular bulb. Of note, all of these patients experienced their neurological symptoms within 4-10 days of the onset of their respiratory symptoms (Table 2).
      Table 1Demographics, Comorbidities and Symptomatology of Covid-19 Patients with Acute Cerebrovascular Disorders
      Male: Female3:5
      Hypertension – no. (%)5 (63%)
      Type II Diabetes Mellitus – no. (%)3 (38%)
      Coronary Artery Disease/Cardiovascular Disease – no. (%)1 (13%)
      History of Malignancy – no. (%)2 (25%)
      Chronic Kidney Disease – no. (%)1 (13%)
      Fever – no. (%)4 (50%)
      Cough – no. (%)7 (88%)
      Acute Ischemic Stroke – no. (%)7 (88%)
      Subarachnoid Hemorrhage2 (25%)
      Sinus Thrombosis – no. (%)1 (13%)
      Stroke Etiology – Extracranial Dissection – no. (%)3 (38%)
      Stroke Etiology – Intracranial Dissection – no. (%)2 (25%)
      Stroke Etiology – ESUS – no. (%)5 (63%)
      Median NIHSS8
      Median GCS13
      Required Intubation – no. (%)5 (63%)
      Severe ARDS – no. (%)5 (63%)
      Headache – no. (%)1 (13%)
      Altered Mental Status – no. (%)6 (75%)
      Ataxia – no. (%)2 (25%)
      Table 2Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the Patients COVID-19 and acute cerebrovascular syndromes.
      CharacteristicsPatient-1Patient-2Patient-3Patient-4Patient-5Patient-6Patient-7Patient-8
      Age3157817267476072
      Acute Cerebrovascular Syndrome CharacteristicsRCVS with Convexity SAH in setting of intracranial and extracranial DissectionLarge vessel occlusion stroke secondary to extracranial dissection with status post mechanical thrombectomyExtracranial and intracranial dissection with diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhageEmbolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) followed by acute onset cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in the right transverse sinus and jugular bulb.Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS)Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS)Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS)Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS)
      GenderFemaleFemaleMaleFemaleFemaleMaleMaleFemale
      WBC7.213.87.40.211.410.16.48.6
      Neutrophils5915.786.7858470.952.965.4
      Lymphocytes29.876.46.910617.43222.3
      Platelets2422702059406323262124
      C- Reactive Protein1.5381734<0.15.2
      Creatinine0.790.722.260.852.191.870.810.68
      BUN2210497185251817
      Creatine Kinase666217318915612701919
      LDH316527334779896303
      AST176416139461573333
      ALT132310189534557319
      D-Dimer1.277.79>35>35>350.19
      Ferritin151.44311.3772.81094177.6773.9
      Covid19 SeverityMildSevereSevereSevereMildMildSevereSevere
      ProcalcitoninNegative0.93NegativeNegative7.85NegativeNegativeNegative
      Fibrinogen491732440856836666499519
      WBC (White Blood Cells) RCVS (Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome); SAH (Subarachnoid Hemorrhage); ESUS (Embolic stroke of undetermined source); ALT (alanine aminotransaminase); AST (aspartate transaminase); LDH (lactate dehydrogenase).

      Cerebral artery dissections

      Three of the eight COVID-19 positive patients were found to have extracranial and/or intracranial dissections seen on CTA/MRA and confirmed with diagnostic cerebral angiography. Two patients had extracranial dissections involving the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery, and one had concomitant dissection of the supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery with associated diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. One of these patients had presented with a non-aneurysmal convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage and was found to have concomitant dissections of the middle cerebral artery and extracranial V2 segment of the vertebral artery. This patient subsequently developed delayed ischemic injury due cerebral vasospasm (Table 1, 2). None of the patients with cerebral dissections had any known risk factors such as connective tissue disorders, vasculopathy, recent history of trauma or cervical manipulations to explain the dissections.

      APACHE IVa score and disease severity

      The average age, presenting APACHE IVa scores as well as severity of the COVID-19 in patients with cerebrovascular disorders was similar to those with no cerebrovascular disorders (Table 3). The average APACHE IVa Score for ICU deaths of the COVID-19 patients with no cerebrovascular involvement compared to COVID-19 patients with cerebrovascular involvement was similarly high in both groups (97.5 vs 89.5). One patient was discharged from the intensive care unit, and five patients (63%) required intubation with mechanical ventilation per the ARDSNet protocol. None of the COVID-19 patients with cerebrovascular involvement were extubated compared to a 19% (25/127) extubation rate in the COVID-19 ICU patients with no cerebrovascular involvement. Of the COVID-19 patients with cerebrovascular disease, 3(37.5%) died in the ICU while on mechanical ventilation, while the other 4(50%) could not be weaned off mechanical ventilation and were transferred to long term care facilities with tracheostomy on ventilators.
      Table. 3Comparison between All COVID patients and Covid-19 Patients with Acute Cerebrovascular Disorders admitted to the ICU
      COVID positive ICU ptsAll COVID-19 PatientsCOVID Patients with Acute Cerebrovascular Disorders
      COVID positive ICU pts (n)1278
      Avg ICU LOS (days)8.15.1
      Avg MV Duration for vented pts (days)104
      Avg Age6260
      Median Age6167
      Average APACHE IVa Score for ICU deaths97.589.5
      Pts successfully extubated (n)250
      Pts died (n)313
      Pts discharged home/ transferred alive (n)445

      Outcomes and ICU mortality

      Of the 8 patients with COVID-19 with cerebrovascular involvement, 3 patients progressed to a Glasgow Coma Scale of 3 with evidence of cerebral edema as well as severe ARDS and eventually died. One patient was discharged home independent while the other 4 were discharged to long term care facility on mechanical ventilation needing full time care. In addition, the average duration to progression to a modified Rankin Score (mRS) of 5/6 was 2 days with an average length of stay of 5.1 days for the COVID-19 patients with CVD compared to 8.1 days for the patients with no cerebrovascular symptoms. The rate of mortality or end-of-life in the ICU in the COVID-19 patients with CVD was 37.5% (3/8), compared to 24% (31/127) in the COVID-19 patients with no cerebrovascular involvement.

      Discussion

      As the incidence of COVID-19 exponentially multiplies around the world, there is mounting evidence for its association with cerebrovascular disease as well as a predisposition for a hypercoagulable state secondary to a DIC-like condition and alteration of the coagulation pathways.
      • Panigada M
      • Bottino N
      • Tagliabue P
      • et al.
      Hypercoagulability of COVID-19 patients in intensive care unit: a report of thromboelastography findings and other parameters of hemostasis.
      ,
      Our COVID-19 patients with spontaneous dissections and SAH or AIS fared worse than others which further added to the morbidity and mortality of these patients already dealing with multi-organ failure. While the mechanism of action leading to a vasculopathy remains multifactorial, our case series adds important literature to the growing volume of case reports describing spontaneous coronary,
      • Courand PY H.B.
      • Bonnet M.
      • Lantelme P.
      Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a patient with COVID-19.
      ,

      Remo Albiero, Giuseppe Seresini, Atherosclerotic spontaneous coronary artery dissection (A-SCAD) in a patient with COVID-19: case report and possible mechanisms, European Heart J Case Rep, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytaa133

      aortic
      • Fukuhara S.
      • Rosati C.M.
      • El-Dalati S
      Acute Type A aortic dissection during COVID-19 Outbreak.
      and carotid
      • Patel P
      • Khandelwal P
      • Gupta G
      • Singla A
      “COVID-19 and cervical artery dissection- a causative association?.
      dissections among patient afflicted with COVID-19. Viral illnesses have been linked to cranial and cervical dissections in prior studies with viral replication causing direct vascular injury or vascular damage as a result of immune response activation secondary to proinflammatory cytokines, free radicals, and proteases.
      ,
      • Smedly LATonnesen MGSandhaus RA
      • et al.
      Neutrophil-mediated injury to endothelial cells: enhancement by endotoxin and essential role of neutrophil elastase.
      SARS-COVID-2 causes damage to endothelial cells, activating inflammatory and thrombotic pathways.

      Varga Z, Flammer AJ, Steiger P et al. Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19 Lancet. 2020; 395: 1417-1418

      It can be postulated that a vasculitic process similar to that seen with varicella zoster virus,
      • Gilden D
      • Cohrs RJ
      • Mahalingam R
      • Nagel MA
      Varicella zoster virus vasculopathies: diverse clinical manifestations, laboratory features, pathogenesis, and treatment.
      in which viral replication in the cerebral arterial wall triggers local inflammation may be responsible for causing spontaneous dissections.
      • Gilden D
      • Cohrs RJ
      • Mahalingam R
      • Nagel MA
      Varicella zoster virus vasculopathies: diverse clinical manifestations, laboratory features, pathogenesis, and treatment.
      Schievink WIWijdicks EFKuiper JD Seasonal pattern of spontaneous cervical artery dissection.
      • Gherardi R.
      • Belec L.
      • Mhiri C.
      • Gray F.
      • Lescs M.C.
      • Sobel A.
      • et al.
      “The spectrum of vasculitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. A clinicopathologic evaluation”.
      Additionally, virus binding to the CNS ACE II receptors may lead to disruption of its autoregulatory function causing blood pressure elevations leading to vessel wall damage predisposing to dissections.
      • Pober JS
      Cytokine-mediated activation of vascular endothelium: physiology and pathology.
      ,
      • Sharifi-Razavi A
      • Karimi N
      • Rouhani N
      COVID-19 and intracerebral haemorrhage: causative or coincidental?.
      Implicated mechanisms for ischemic stroke in COVID-19 patients include inflammation, prothrombotic coagulopathy and endothelial injury. The strong inflammatory response alongside elevated D-dimer levels and often noted anti-phospholipid antibodies leads to high rates of coagulopathy leading to embolic strokes which fits with the stroke sub-type seen in our patient cohort.
      • Magro C
      • Mulvey JJ
      • Berlin D
      • et al.
      Complement associated microvascular injury and thrombosis in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 infection: a report of five cases.
      • Panigada M
      • Bottino N
      • Tagliabue P
      • et al.
      Hypercoagulability of COVID-19 patients in intensive care unit: a report of thromboelastography findings and other parameters of hemostasis.
      • Ranucci M
      • Ballotta A
      • Di Dedda U
      • et al.
      The procoagulant pattern of patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome.
      Empiric low dose anticoagulation has been considered to be effective in preventing strokes in critically sick patients with COVID-19.

      F.A. Klok, M. Kruip, N.J.M. van der Meer, et al. Incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19 Thromb Res (2020)

      As our understanding of the multiple pathways of action of COVID-19 continues to improve, knowledge and awareness of these added complications will help clinicians to pro-actively monitor and perhaps manage these conditions better.
      There are several limitations to these observations. This is a single center report and while it may not be generalizable, our study represents the first series of reported dissections among COVID-19 patients. While it is possible that the association of severity of COVID and cerebral dissections may or may not be a direct one, further reporting of cases and larger cohort registries will help elucidate the natural history of these spontaneous infectious dissections and add to the literature.

      Conclusion

      In conclusion, based on the presumption that the infection with the COVID-19 virus results in a hyperinflammatory cascade, and consequently hypercoagulability, intensivists should have a high index of suspicion for cerebrovascular complications in the setting of this pandemic. Our institution's preliminary experience suggests a higher incidence and mortality of acute cerebrovascular disease in COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICUs. Further studies exploring the use of antiplatelets early in the course of COVID-19 related cerebrovascular disorders and specifically cerebrovascular dissections are needed as this contributes to a significant percentage of the overall ICU mortality.

      Declaration of competing interest

      None of the Authors have any relevant conflict of interest or disclosures.

      References

        • Galeotti C.
        • Bayry J
        Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases following COVID-19.
        Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2020; 16: 413-414
        • Montalvan V
        • Lee J
        • Bueso T
        • De Toledo J
        • Rivas K
        Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections: a systematic review.
        Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2020 Jul; 194 (Epub 2020 May 15. PMID: 32422545; PMCID: PMC7227498)105921https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.105921
        • Magro C
        • Mulvey JJ
        • Berlin D
        • et al.
        Complement associated microvascular injury and thrombosis in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 infection: a report of five cases.
        Transl Res. 2020; 220: 1
        • Panigada M
        • Bottino N
        • Tagliabue P
        • et al.
        Hypercoagulability of COVID-19 patients in intensive care unit: a report of thromboelastography findings and other parameters of hemostasis.
        J Thromb Haemost. 2020; 18: 1738
        • Ranucci M
        • Ballotta A
        • Di Dedda U
        • et al.
        The procoagulant pattern of patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome.
        J Thromb Haemost. 2020; 18: 1747
        • Oxley TJ
        • Mocco J
        • Majidi S
        • et al.
        Large-vessel stroke as a presenting feature of COVID-19 in the young.
        N Engl J Med. 2020; 382: e60https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2009787
        • Dakay K
        • Kaur G
        • Gulko E
        • Santarelli J
        • Bowers C
        • Mayer SA
        • Gandhi CD
        • Al-Mufti F
        Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and dissection in the setting of COVID-19 infection.
        J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2020 Sep; 29105011
        • Courand PY H.B.
        • Bonnet M.
        • Lantelme P.
        Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a patient with COVID-19.
        JACC: Cardiovasc Interv. 2020;
      1. Remo Albiero, Giuseppe Seresini, Atherosclerotic spontaneous coronary artery dissection (A-SCAD) in a patient with COVID-19: case report and possible mechanisms, European Heart J Case Rep, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytaa133

        • Fukuhara S.
        • Rosati C.M.
        • El-Dalati S
        Acute Type A aortic dissection during COVID-19 Outbreak.
        Ann Thorac Surg. 2020;
        • Patel P
        • Khandelwal P
        • Gupta G
        • Singla A
        “COVID-19 and cervical artery dissection- a causative association?.
        J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2020 Oct; 29 (Epub 2020 Jun 13. PMCID: PMC7293449)105047https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105047
      2. Cheng W Wang Y Lian Y Zhang J Zheng Y Hu Y Chen Y Wu S Huang Z Shi Y Cheng W A case-control study of the determinants for cervicocerebral artery dissection. 266. J Neurol, 2019 Jan: 119-123https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-9096-0 (Epub 2018 Nov 12.J Neurol. 2019. PMID: 30421338)
        • Smedly LATonnesen MGSandhaus RA
        • et al.
        Neutrophil-mediated injury to endothelial cells: enhancement by endotoxin and essential role of neutrophil elastase.
        J Clin Invest. 1986; 771233-: 1243
      3. Varga Z, Flammer AJ, Steiger P et al. Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19 Lancet. 2020; 395: 1417-1418

        • Gilden D
        • Cohrs RJ
        • Mahalingam R
        • Nagel MA
        Varicella zoster virus vasculopathies: diverse clinical manifestations, laboratory features, pathogenesis, and treatment.
        Lancet Neurol. 2009; 8: 731-740
      4. Schievink WIWijdicks EFKuiper JD Seasonal pattern of spontaneous cervical artery dissection.
        J Neurosurg. 1998; 89101-: 103
        • Gherardi R.
        • Belec L.
        • Mhiri C.
        • Gray F.
        • Lescs M.C.
        • Sobel A.
        • et al.
        “The spectrum of vasculitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. A clinicopathologic evaluation”.
        Arthritis Rheum. 1993; 36: 1164-1174
        • Pober JS
        Cytokine-mediated activation of vascular endothelium: physiology and pathology.
        Am J Physiol. 1988; 133426-: 43
        • Sharifi-Razavi A
        • Karimi N
        • Rouhani N
        COVID-19 and intracerebral haemorrhage: causative or coincidental?.
        New Microbes New Infect. 2020; 35100669
      5. F.A. Klok, M. Kruip, N.J.M. van der Meer, et al. Incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19 Thromb Res (2020)