Impact of Low Ambient Temperature on the Occurrence of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Analysis of Population-Based Stroke Registry in Toyama, Japan



      Although several studies have reported that some meteorological factors such as ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure, affect the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the correlation remains unclear. This retrospective time-series analysis was aimed to clarify the effects of meteorological parameters on the incidence of ICH.

      Materials and Methods

      Data of patients with ICH were obtained from a population-based survey of acute stroke patients between April 2016 and March 2019. All days during the study period were categorized into “no ICH day” when no ICHs occurred, “single ICH day” when only one ICH occurred, and “cluster day” when two or more ICHs occurred. Meteorological data were compared for among the three categories.


      1,691 ICH patients from 19 hospitals were registered. In a total of 1,095 days, 250 were categorized as no ICH days, 361 as single ICH days, and 484 as cluster days. Daily ambient temperature declined in parallel with the daily number of ICHs, and it was a significant predictor for single ICH days and cluster days. Furthermore, the incidence of ICH in patients aged 65 years or above, men, those who emerged at home, those with modified Rankin Scale 3-5; and those with hypertension; and ICHs in the basal ganglia, brain stem, and cerebellum were more likely to be affected by low ambient temperature.


      Daily ambient temperature was significantly associated with ICH incidence. Patients’ activity, history of hypertension, and location of hemorrhage were also related to the impact of low ambient temperature on the incidence of ICH.

      Key Words

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