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Prevalence and Risk Factors of Silent Cerebral Microbleeds in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

      Highlights

      • 1
        Cerebral microbleeds were frequently observed in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
      • 2
        The factors associated with cerebral microbleeds in CAD were long-term DAPT.
      • 3
        These findings may enable physicians to take appropriate preventive measures, including stringent regulation of antiplatelet therapy in patients at high risk.

      Abstract

      Objectives

      Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which can be detected by gradient-echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), represent small chronic brain hemorrhages caused by structural abnormalities in cerebral small vessels. CMBs are known to be a potential predictor of future stroke, and are associated with age, various cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive impairment, and the use of antithrombotic drugs. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are at potentially high risk of CMBs due to the presence of coexistent conditions. However, little is known about CMBs in patients with CAD. We aimed to identify the factors associated with the presence of CMBs among patients with CAD.

      Methods

      We evaluated 356 consecutive patients [mean age, 72 ± 10 years; men = 276 (78%)] with angiographically proven CAD who underwent T2*-weighted brain MRI. The brain MRI was assessed by researchers blinded to the patients’ clinical details.

      Results

      CMBs were found in 128 (36%) patients. Among 356 patients, 119 (33%) had previously undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and 26 (7%) coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). There was no significant relationship between CMBs and sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, anticoagulation therapy, antiplatelet therapy, or prior PCI. CMBs were significantly associated with advanced age, previous CABG, eGFR, non-HDL cholesterol, carotid artery disease, long-term antiplatelet therapy, and long-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) using univariate logistic regression analysis. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that long-term antiplatelet therapy (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.06 – 2.84; P = 0.03) or long-term DAPT (odds ratio, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.39 – 6.17; P = 0.004) was significantly associated with CMBs after adjustment for confounding variables.

      Conclusions

      CMBs were frequently observed in patients with CAD and were significantly associated with long-term antiplatelet therapy, especially long-term DAPT.

      Abbreviations:

      CMBs (Cerebral microbleeds), MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging), CAD (Coronary artery disease), PCI (Percutaneous coronary intervention), CABG (Coronary artery bypass grafting), DAPT (Dual antiplatelet therapy), SAPT (Single antiplatelet therapy), eGFR (Estimated glomerular filtration rate)

      Key Words

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