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Diabetes is an Independent Growth Factor of Ischemic Stroke During Reperfusion Phase Leading to Poor Clinical Outcome

      Highlights

      • Half of the stroke patients recanalized by thrombectomy remain disabled at 3 months.
      • Continued infarct growth is associated to poor prognosis after recanalization.
      • Diabetic history is independently associated to infarct growth during reperfusion.
      • Diabetic history is independently associated to poor clinical outcome.
      • Diabetic microangiopathy leads probably to poor reperfusion despite recanalization.

      Abstract

      Objectives

      Despite the success of recanalization by bridging therapy, about half of treated stroke patients remain disabled. While numerous reports propose clinical predictors of stroke clinical outcome in this context, we originally aimed to study pre-therapeutic factors influencing infarct growth (IG) and poor clinical outcome in strokes due to large vessel occlusion (LVO) successfully recanalized.

      Materials and methods

      We enrolled 87 consecutive successfully recanalized patients (mTICI: 2b/2c/3) by mechanical thrombectomy (±rt-PA) after stroke due to middle cerebral artery (M1) occlusion within 6 h according to AHA guidelines. IG was defined by subtracting the initial DWI volume to the final 24 h-TDM volume. Statistical associations between poor clinical outcome (mRS≥2), IG and pertinent clinico-radiological variables, were measured using logistic and linear regression models.

      Results

      Among 87 enrolled patients (Age(y): 68.4 ± 17.5; NIHSS: 16.0 ± 5.4), 42/87 (48,28%) patients had a mRS ≥ 2 at 3 months. Diabetic history (OR: 3.70 CI95%[1.03;14.29] and initial NIHSS (/1 point: OR: 1.16 CI95%[1.05;1.27]) were independently associated with poor outcome. IG was significantly higher in stroke patients with poor outcome (+7.57 ± 4.52 vs −7.81 ± 1.67; p = 0.0024). Initial volumes were not significantly different (mRS≥2: 16.18 ± 2.67; mRS[0–1]: 14.70 ± 2.30; p = 0.6771). Explanatory variables of IG in linear regression were diabetic history (β: 21.26 CI95%[5.43; 37.09]) and NIHSS (β: 0.83 CI95%[0.02; 1.64]). IG was higher in diabetic stroke patients (23.54 ± 1.43 vs −6.20 ± 9.36; p = 0.0061).

      Conclusions

      We conclude that diabetes leads to continued IG after complete recanalization, conditioning clinical outcome in LVO strokes successfully recanalized by bridging therapy. We suggest that poor tissular reperfusion by diabetic microangiopathy could explain this result.

      Key Words

      Abbreviations:

      IG (Infarct Growth), LVO (Large Vessel Occlusion), DWI (Diffusion-Weighted Imaging)
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