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Cerebral fat embolism syndrome at a single trauma center

      Abstract

      Objectives

      Based on a 16-year case series, we sought lessons about diagnosis and treatment of cerebral fat embolism syndrome.

      Materials and methods

      Using discharge codes at a Level 1 Trauma Center, we performed a retrospective chart review of clinical characteristics, diagnostic studies, treatments, and outcome in cerebral fat embolism syndrome.

      Results

      Thirty-nine (40%) of 97 patients with fat embolism syndrome were diagnosed with cerebral fat embolism syndrome, with 29 (74%) presenting with coma. All had abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging, with scattered cytotoxic edema (starfield pattern) in 29 (74%). All but two of the 21 patients with dilated fundoscopy showed retinal embolism. Among 29 patients with transcranial Doppler, the presence of microembolic signals in 15 (52%) was associated with fever (p = 0.039), right-to-left intracardiac shunting (p = 0.046) and a trend towards initial coma. In 11 patients with serial transcranial Dopplers and treatment with high-intensity statin therapy, the frequency of microembolic signals tended to decrease after therapy was initiated. Of the 28 (72%) of the 39 patients discharged, 16 (57%) had mild to moderate disability at last follow up.

      Conclusions

      The recognition of cerebral fat embolism syndrome may be improved with routine inclusion of brain magnetic resonance imaging, dilated fundoscopy, and transcranial Doppler. We share our empiric management algorithm for cerebral fat embolism syndrome using these studies and with consideration of experimental therapies in select patients to prevent ongoing cerebral injury.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      CFES (cerebral fat emboli syndrome), TCD (transcranial Doppler), MES (microembolic signals), TBI (traumatic brain injury)
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