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Characteristics and outcomes of postpartum cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: A subgroup analysis of the ACTION-CVT study

      Abstract

      Background and purpose

      There is a relative paucity of data regarding long-term outcomes and treatment-related complications in women of childbearing age with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). We sought to determine whether outcomes differ in women of childbearing age with versus without postpartum CVST.

      Methods

      We retrospectively analysed 373 non-pregnant females of childbearing age (18-45 years) included in the multicenter observational Anticoagulation in the Treatment of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis study (ACTION-CVT). Comparisons were made between postpartum (first 12 weeks from delivery, n=38 [10.2%]) versus non-postpartum women (n=335 [89.8%]). The primary outcomes of interest were one-year risk of all-cause death, venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence, and major hemorrhage (i.e., new or worsening intracranial hemorrhage or major extracranial hemorrhage). Secondary outcomes were the discharge disposition and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at discharge and 90 days.

      Results

      Postpartum status was associated with greater risk of seizures (42.1% versus 20.9%, p=0.003), venous infarction (47.4% versus 29.5%, p=0.025), intracranial hemorrhage (55.3% versus 36.1%, p=0.022), and requirement for neurosurgical treatment (13.2% versus 3.6%, p=0.021). There was no significant association with one year all cause death (N=373 HR=1.35, 95%-CI=0.15-11.87, p=0.784), VTE recurrence (N=373, HR=1.27, 95%-CI=0.45-3.59, p=0.648), major hemorrhage (N=373, HR=1.36, 95%-CI=0.46-4.0, p=0.581) as well as excellent (mRS[0-1]: OR=1.58, 95%-CI=0.4-7.1, p=0.554) and good (mRS[0-2]: OR=0.92, 95%-CI=0.2-4.27, p=0.918) 90-day mRS. Results were similar after adjustment for potential confounders.

      Conclusions

      Although CVST in the 12-week postpartum period was more frequently associated with early complications, 90-day functional disability and one-year outcomes were similar to women with CVST unrelated to pregnancy.

      Keywords

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