Factors affecting self-reported bleeding acceptance in acute ischemic stroke survivors on various types of antithrombotic therapy


      • The first study to assess factors that determine bleeding acceptance in stroke survivors.
      • Type of secondary stroke prevention affects bleeding acceptance.
      • Anticoagulation in AF patients after stroke is associated with low bleeding acceptance.
      • Revascularization in acute stroke lowers bleeding acceptance in stroke survivors.



      Prior ischemic cerebrovascular event and younger age have been shown to increase bleeding acceptance among anticoagulated outpatients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to determine factors affecting bleeding acceptance in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) survivors on various types of antithrombotic therapy.

      Materials and Methods

      We enrolled 173 consecutive patients hospitalized for AIS (aged 68.2±11.7 years, 54.9% male), including 54 (31.2%) with AF, who had favorable functional outcome. On discharge, the Bleeding ratio, defined as the declared maximum number of major bleedings that a patient is willing to accept to prevent one major stroke, was evaluated. We assessed the predicted bleeding risk in non-cardioembolic and cardioembolic stroke survivors using S2TOP-BLEED and HAS-BLED scores, respectively.


      Patients with the low Bleeding ratio, defined as 5 (median) or less accepted bleeds (n=92; 53.2%), were older and more likely to receive thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy, with no impact of previous stroke. Prior major bleed (odds ratio [OR] 4.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-23.72), AF with use of oral anticoagulants (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.12-4.93), reperfusion treatment (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.02-3.76), and hospitalization ≤10 days (OR 4.56; 95% CI 1.50-13.87) were associated with the low Bleeding Ratio. Prior use of anticoagulants or aspirin as well as HAS-BLED and S2TOP-BLEED scores did not affect the bleeding acceptance.


      Lower bleeding acceptance declared on discharge by AIS survivors is determined by prior bleeding, anticoagulation in AF, reperfusion treatment, and duration of hospitalization, which might affect medication adherence. The results might help optimize post-discharge management and educational efforts in patients on antithrombotic therapy.


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