Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) is recommended in medically eligible patients with large vessel occlusions (LVO) within 24 hours of symptom onset. While there is evidence that EVT ≥24h after last known well (LKW) is associated with favorable outcomes in patients who meet DAWN/DEFUSE-3 criteria, it is unknown if more liberal criteria can be applied.
A single center, prospective observational cohort of consecutive adult stroke patients was queried for symptomatic occlusions of the internal carotid (ICA) or proximal middle cerebral (M1) arteries (October 2019-January 2022), with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥6, pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2, and Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Scale score 3-10. These inclusion criteria were extrapolated from recently published data indicating a benefit with EVT with more liberal patient selection. Patients who underwent EVT ≥24h after LKW were compared against those treated medically. The primary outcome was a good functional outcome (90-day mRS 0-2), which was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression.
Of the 27 included patients, the median age was 65y (IQR 49-76) with a median NIHSS of 15 (IQR 8-26), and 17 (63.0%) underwent EVT (median LKW-to-puncture 35.5h (IQR 26.9-65.8h). The primary outcome was no different with EVT in unadjusted regression (OR 1.17, 95%CI 0.17-8.09), and there remained no association across all multivariable models tested. Age, pre-stroke disability, and M1 occlusions were non-significantly associated with the primary outcome (p>0.05). There was a non-significant trend indicating a favorable shift in 90-day mRS with EVT (proportional OR 2.04, 95%CI 0.44-9.48).
Using more liberal inclusion criteria for EVT in the ultra-extended window, there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of good functional outcome with EVT. Larger studies are called upon to evaluate outcomes when more liberal criteria are used to assess thrombectomy eligibility.
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Published online: January 18, 2023
Accepted: December 18, 2022
Received in revised form: November 21, 2022
Received: August 23, 2022
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