Research Article| Volume 32, ISSUE 3, 106986, March 2023

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Endothelial function and arterial stiffness indexes in subjects with carotid plaque and carotid plaque length: A subgroup analysis showing the relationship with hypertension and diabetes



      Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability globally. A large proportion of ischemic strokes are caused by carotid atherosclerotic plaques. However, the relationship between vascular health status (arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction) and carotid plaque remains unclear.

      Our strategy

      Here, we recruited 991 subjects with carotid plaques and 1170 subjects without carotid plaques to measure arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction, using a logistic regression model and multiple linear regression models to predict the relationship between them and carotid plaques.

      Main results

      The data revealed that patients with carotid plaques presented a significantly higher mean of cf-PWV and lower mean RHI values. Age, male gender, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking contributed to plaque formation. Carotid plaques and their lengths were negatively associated with RHI values and positively associated with cf-PWV values; diabetes combined with hypertension showed a cumulative effect on arteriosclerosis.


      RHI combined with cf-PWV could improve the efficacy of predicting the presence of carotid plaques and their lengths.



      BMI (body mass index), Sp (systolic pressure), Dp (diastolic pressure), HCAD (history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases), TIA (transient ischemic attack), RHI (reactive hyperaemia index), AI (augmentation index), AI75bpm (heart rate in 75 beat per minute augmentation index), Meannn (mean RR interval for heart rate), aortic aix pp (aortic augmentation index (first peak/second peak)), Rmssd (root mean square of the difference between adjacent RR intervals of heart rate), Nn50 (number of cardiac cycles with RR interval difference greater than 50ms), Pnn50 (the ratio of the number of cardiac cycles with RR interval differences greater than 50ms to the total number of RR intervals), Lf (0.04-0.15hz) (low frequency), Hf (0.15-0.4hz) (high-frequency power), Asp (aortic systolic pressure), Adp (aortic diastolic pressure), Amp (aortic mean pressure), App (aortic pulse pressure), Rsp (radial systolic pressure), RCT (randomised controlled trial), Rdp (radial diastolic pressure), Rmp (radial mean pressure), Rpp (radial pulse pressure), Sdnn (RR interval standard deviation of heart rate), Ejection (ms) (cardiac systolic ejection time), Duration (%) (ejection duration time ratio), AT (aortic pressure to reach the peak time), Pheight (pressure of minimum pressure subtract first peak pressure), Period (ms) (cardiac cycle period), BSEVR (%) (Buckberg subendocardial viability ratio), cf-PWV (carotid-femoral artery pulse wave velocity), Pti diastole (diastolic Systolic pulse transmission index), c-f-meantime (mean of the time difference between the femoral and carotid arteries of the heartbeat), Esp (end systolic pressure), Aortic aug (aortic augmentation), Mp systole (mean systolic pressure), Mp diastole (mean diastolic pressure), e-cgcar-HR (heart rate at carotid pulse point), Pti systole (systolic pulse transmission index), Distance (carotid-femoral artery distance)
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