• Introduction
• Submissions
• Ethics in publishing
• Studies in humans and animals
• Informed consent and patient details
• Declaration of interest
• Declaration of generative AI in scientific writing
• Use of inclusive language
• Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Peer review
• Submission Requirements
• Highlights
• Artwork
• References
• Supplementary material
• Research Elements
• Special Sections
• Online proof correction



Fernando D Testai MD PhD FAHA FAAN
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
University of Illinois Chicago
Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation
912 S Wood St
Chicago, Illinois (60647)
United States

The goal of the Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases is to provide its readership with the highest quality material possible through a process of careful peer review and editorial comment. The Journal seeks to publish original papers on basic and clinical science related to the fields of stroke and cerebrovascular disease including review articles, controversies, methods and technical notes, selected case reports, and other original articles of a special nature. Our editorial mission is to focus on prevention and management of cerebrovascular disease. Thus, the scientific disciplines welcomed for publication will span from epidemiology to rehabilitation medicine. Another mission is to publish experimental studies from the test tube to the in vivo model whenever these approaches are applied to an understanding of the mechanisms of injury or repair of the brain and its circulation. The Journal will emphasize the physiopathology and molecular mechanisms of ischemia and hemorrhagic cell damage. Clinical papers will emphasize medical, surgical, and endovascular aspects of stroke, clinical trials and design, epidemiology, stroke care delivery systems and outcomes, imaging sciences, and rehabilitation of stroke.


Authors should adhere to the following instructions for submission of manuscripts to the Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases. All manuscripts should be submitted electronically, uploading documents to the submission website (https://www.editorialmanager.com/jscvd). The system will convert documents to PDF files. Authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts in Microsoft Word. Any manuscript determined to be improperly prepared or edited can be returned to the authors without review.

All correspondence, including the Editor's decision and request for revisions, will be by e-mail. Authors may send queries concerning the submission process, manuscript status, or journal procedures to the Editorial Office at [email protected]. Authors unable to submit an electronic version should contact the Editorial Office to discuss alternatives.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Research Council's Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double anonymized) or the manuscript file (if single anonymized). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Declaration of generative AI in scientific writing

The below guidance only refers to the writing process, and not to the use of AI tools to analyse and draw insights from data as part of the research process.

Where authors use generative artificial intelligence (AI) and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process, authors should only use these technologies to improve readability and language. Applying the technology should be done with human oversight and control, and authors should carefully review and edit the result, as AI can generate authoritative-sounding output that can be incorrect, incomplete or biased. AI and AI-assisted technologies should not be listed as an author or co-author, or be cited as an author. Authorship implies responsibilities and tasks that can only be attributed to and performed by humans, as outlined in Elsevier’s AI policy for authors.

Authors should disclose in their manuscript the use of AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process by following the instructions below. A statement will appear in the published work. Please note that authors are ultimately responsible and accountable for the contents of the work.

Disclosure instructions
Authors must disclose the use of generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process by adding a statement at the end of their manuscript in the core manuscript file, before the References list. The statement should be placed in a new section entitled ‘Declaration of Generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process’.

Statement: During the preparation of this work the author(s) used [NAME TOOL / SERVICE] in order to [REASON]. After using this tool/service, the author(s) reviewed and edited the content as needed and take(s) full responsibility for the content of the publication.

This declaration does not apply to the use of basic tools for checking grammar, spelling, references etc. If there is nothing to disclose, there is no need to add a statement.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses

Reporting guidance
For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Registration of clinical trials

Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.

Article transfer service

This journal uses the Elsevier Article Transfer Service to find the best home for your manuscript. This means that if an editor feels your manuscript is more suitable for an alternative journal, you might be asked to consider transferring the manuscript to such a journal. The recommendation might be provided by a Journal Editor, a dedicated Scientific Managing Editor, a tool assisted recommendation, or a combination. If you agree, your manuscript will be transferred, though you will have the opportunity to make changes to the manuscript before the submission is complete. Please note that your manuscript will be independently reviewed by the new journal. More information.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy

Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.

Peer review

This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

Submission Requirements

Cover letter
The author(s) should provide the aforementioned written assurances. In addition, author(s) are welcome to suggest three to five referees for their paper whom have expertise on the topic. Full names and professional/academic email addresses are required. Suggested reviewers may not have any conflict of interests or be affiliated with any of the authors' institutions. Editors cannot guarantee assignment of a particular reviewer to a paper. Any unusual circumstances surrounding the research or explanations for deviations from standard procedures or format should be explained in the cover letter.

When using abbreviations, write the full name of the abbreviated item followed by the abbreviation in parentheses at the point of first mention within the body of the manuscript. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract or title of the manuscript.

Title page
The title page should contain the following information: (1) Full title of the manuscript, not to exceed 120 characters. (2) Full name, degrees, professional email, academic affiliation, and phone number for each author. Authors should be limited to those individuals who contributed in an important manner to the study design, data collection and analysis, or writing of the paper. (3) Department and institution where work was performed. (4) Grant support. (5) In addition, one author should be designated as a Corresponding Author to whom all communications regarding the manuscript should be directed. A full postal address should also be provided for the Corresponding Author. (6) A shortened version of the title that is 45 characters or less to be used as a running title. (7) Keywords (between 4 and 8).

Original Articles, Reviews, Short Communications, and Case Studies should include a structured abstract with the following headings: Objectives, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions (max 250 words).

Tables and Figures

1. General specifications
a) Figures, Graphics, and Photos should not be embedded in the manuscript text file.
b) Upload separate files for your Tables and for each individual Figure, Graphic, or Photo.
c) Do not include Tables and Figures in the manuscript text file.
d) For each Figure and Table, please include the appropriate Figure/Table number in the description field.

2. Tables
a) Tables must be cited in the text and numbered according to the order of appearance.
b) Each table should contain enough information to allow interpretation without reference to the text. Include a descriptive title and sample size(s).
c) When reporting results from multivariable analyses, include unadjusted and adjusted results for the primary exposure(s) or comparison(s) of interest. For multivariable models, include the variables of adjustment in the footnote of each table.
d) When reporting frequencies, include the numerator and the denominator. e) Explanatory matter and source notations for borrowed or adapted tables should be placed in a table footnote, not in the title or table body.

3. Figures
a) Accepted formats are EPS, TIFF, and JPEG.
b) Figures must be cited in the text and numbered in order of appearance.
c) For manuscripts containing panels with multiple photomicrographs, each individual panel should also be provided in individual files.
d) Figures should be supplied at the highest resolution possible. The minimum resolution required for initial submission and publication is 300 dpi.
e) All photomicrographs should include scale bars.
f) Computer-generated figures should use solid fills or cross-hatching, not tonal shading.
g) Figure legends should be presented separately and placed in the manuscript after the list of references. Legends should allow interpretation of the figures without reference to the text and include sample size(s).


Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.

Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).


Electronic artwork

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.


Cite references in text in order of appearance using Arabic numerals in parentheses for citations. Place the reference list at the end of the final text page. References should be listed in text citation number order and must be double spaced. Include the names of all authors up to a total of three before resorting to the use of "et al." All published material, including brief communications and Letters to the Editor, must be cited in the References section. References to unpublished material, such as personal communications and unpublished data, must be placed within the text and not cited in the References section. Personal communications and unpublished data must include the individual's name, location, and month and year of communication as appropriate. In the reference list, use only abbreviations approved for use in the latest edition of Index Medicus and conform style and punctuation to the requirements listed below:

Journal article:

Bontia R, Ford MA, Stewart AW. Predicting survival after stroke: A three-year follow-up. Stroke 1988;19:669-673.

Book chapter:

Whyte J, Robinson KM. Pharmacologic management. In: Glenn MB, Whyte J, eds. The practical management of spasticity in children and adults. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1990:201-226.

Complete book:

Brooks VB. The neural basis of motor control. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Special type of article:

Schmidt R, Fazekas F, Horner S, et al. Lipoprotein (a) serum levels of normals are not associated with carotid atherosclerosis and microangiopathy-related cerebral damage. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 1995;5:116 (abstr).

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Research Elements

This journal enables you to publish research objects related to your original research – such as data, methods, protocols, software and hardware – as an additional paper in a Research Elements journal.

Research Elements is a suite of peer-reviewed, open access journals which make your research objects findable, accessible and reusable. Articles place research objects into context by providing detailed descriptions of objects and their application, and linking to the associated original research articles. Research Elements articles can be prepared by you, or by one of your collaborators.

During submission, you will be alerted to the opportunity to prepare and submit a manuscript to one of the Research Elements journals.

More information can be found on the Research Elements page.

Special Sections

Special sections in the Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases

Short Communications: A Short Communication is any short, concise report which contributes significantly to the existing literature. Please note that it differs from a Rapid Communication in that it is not expedited for peer review or publication. The length is generally 2,500 words, and should be no more than 3,500 words. There should be only a few figures or tables, and references should average around 10. There is no structured abstract required, and the Methods, Results and Discussion may be combined in a single section to help stay within the word limitation. This differs from an Original Article which requires a structured abstract, a specific format with sections, and has no specific word, reference, or figure/table limit.

Review Articles: Reviews typically cover emerging therapies or controversial aspects in cerebrovascular diseases. These articles are commissioned by the Editor-in-Chief but unsolicited submissions will also be considered. Authors interested in submitting a review article should submit a letter of intent to the editorial office including title, authors and affiliations, and a brief narrative highlighting the importance of the proposed topic. These can be sent to Christine Moore, Managing Editor, at [email protected]. After receiving approval from the editorial office, authors will be sent an invitation via Editorial Manager to upload their invited review article, which will then undergo peer review.

Controversies: When appropriate, a Controversies Section will appear several times yearly and serve as a medium for communicating controversy in the field of stroke and cerebrovascular disease. Authors will be selected for their expertise or outspoken positions or for their objectivity and analysis of a chosen subject. The Editor of the Controversy Section will oversee the preparation of the submitted manuscripts. They or an invited Guest Editor will add their commentary.

Rapid Communications: The Editor will provide the most rapid turnaround time possible in the review process. Authors may request rapid review of material found to be of critical importance to the field. The authors should accompany their manuscript with a letter stating clearly why they consider their work is appropriate for that request. Once accepted, these manuscripts will be published in the next subsequent issue of the Journal at the Editor's discretion.

Case Reports: Reports of clinical interest should contain no more than 400 words of text and one Table or Figure. Only unique Case Reports which contribute to existing literature will be considered for review and possible publication. The reference list should be limited to 10. The authors should also limit their case reports to new materials, rare clinical conditions, or cases that provide insight into diagnostic or therapeutic alternatives of a disease process. They should provide their reason for the case report in a separate cover letter to the author. Most Case Reports will be e-published only.

Letters to the Editor: Letters to the Editor will be considered only when it relates to original articles recently published in JSCVD. A Letter to the Editor should provide new insight, suggest corrections, offer alternative theories, or request clarification about content printed in JSCVD. Once received by JSCVD and at the direction of the Editor, selected Letters will be sent to the author (of the article being addressed) for a response. Letters and responses will be published together. Please include in your submission:

  • When discussing a prior JSCVD published manuscript, please cite the specific article in the main body of your letter and add it to the Reference List at the end of your manuscript.
  • We request that you use a unique title for your Letter to the Editor:

Letter regarding a JSCVD published manuscript, please begin your title as follows:
Letter to the Editor Regarding (insert particular original article title here)
If you have been invited to respond to a Letter to the Editor, please start your title with:
In Reply to the Letter to the Editor Regarding (insert particular original article title here)

Methodologic and Technical Reports: The Journal will accept the full description of selective randomized clinical trial protocols prior to publication of results. The manuscript must include comprehensive details of methodologic design. Publications are expected to enhance the science of clinical trials design and to provide extensive detail of these methods. It is hoped that authors will follow up with publication of some, if not, all aspects of the results of the clinical trial.

The Technical Note section will permit publication of innovative techniques in neurology, neurosurgery, and interventional radiology as regards the stroke and cerebrovascular disease sciences. The techniques should be novel and extensively described.

Editorial commentary
Every issue will be introduced by a section in which Guest Editors will comment on papers in the current Journal. These articles will be summarized, highlighting items of special interest. The commentary will discuss the importance of the paper and its relevance to the field. Controversial aspects of the selected articles will be emphasized.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
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